MANCHURIA: The Japanese occupy Chinchow and drive the ruler, Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang, forces from Manchuria. The Japanese allege the danger of bandits for their occupation.
GERMANY: Erik Jan Hanussen, Czech mentalist, occultist, and astrologer, predicts Hitler's appointment as Chancellor by the end of the month is widely ridiculed by Hitler's enemies and the German press.
SWITZERLAND: After the Italians refused to arbitrate the Ualual dispute, where Italian and Ethiopian troops clashed on the disputed Ethiopian-Italian Somaliland frontier on 5 December 1934, the Ethiopian government appeals for relief to the League of Nations under Article 11 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. Article 11 states, "Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations. In case any such emergency should arise the Secretary General shall on the request of any Member of the League forthwith summon a meeting of the Council." The League of Nations, however, postpones action on the Ethiopian request.
SWITZERLAND: Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie requests a League commission of inquiry "to inquire into the manner in which hostilities were being conducted by both belligerents."
U.S.A.: President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his State of the Union message to Congress says the United States, by the arms embargo and by the discouragement of the export of war materials above peacetime level, declines to encourage the prosecution of war stating, "As a consistent part of a clear policy, the United States is following a twofold neutrality toward any and all nations which engage in wars not of immediate concern to the Americas."
January 3rd, 1939 (TUESDAY)
Order of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
Concerning the text of the Military Oath of The Workers-Peasants' Red Army
In accordance with the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the following text is approved for the military oath of the Workers-Peasants' Red Army:
I, a citizen of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, entering into the ranks of the Workers-Peasants' Red Army, take this oath and solemnly promise to be an honest, brave, disciplined, vigilant fighter, staunchly to protect military and state secrets, and unquestioningly to obey all military regulations and orders of commanders and superiors.
I promise conscientiously to study military affairs, in every way to protect military and state property, and to my last breath to be faithful to the people, the Soviet Motherland, and the Workers-Peasants' Government.
I am always prepared on order of the Workers-Peasants' Government to rise to the defence of my Motherland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; and as a fighting man of the Workers-Peasants' Red Army, I promise to defend it bravely, skilfully, with dignity and honour, sparing neither my blood nor my life itself for the achievement of total victory over our enemies.
If by evil intent I should violate this my solemn oath, then let the severe punishment of Soviet law and the total hatred and contempt of the working classes befall me.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR M.Kalinin
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR A.Gorkin
Moscow, the Kremlin
The official procedures for the legal administering of the military oath into the RKKA (Red Army) were set out in a definitively prescribed manner legally bound and defined by two distinct articles of the Soviet [USSR] Constitution. I found the exacting protocols of these procedures interestingly detailed enough to enumerate them below:
Order of the Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet of the USSR
Concerning the Procedure for Administering the Military Oath
The following statute is approved concerning the procedure for administering the military oath:
1. Upon entering into the ranks of the Workers-Peasants' Red Army, Workers-Peasants' Navy, or border troops, each service- man takes the military oath.
2. Each serviceman takes the military oath individually and authenticates it with his personal signature.
3. The following personnel take the military oath:
(a) young Red Army and Red Navy personnel upon completion of individual training and mastery of the regulation regarding internal service and the regulation regarding military discipline and significance of the military oath, but not later than two months from their arrival in a troop unit;
(b) officer trainees in military training schools and attendees at military academies who have not already taken the military oath, by the same time criteria.
4. Young Red Army soldiers and Red Navy sailors, as well as officer trainees and attendees at academies, take the oath under the guidance of the commander and military commissar of the regiment (brigade) and the chief and commissar of the directorate, department, or institution.
5. The time for taking the oath is published in an order by the given unit. All explanatory work associated with taking the oath, and concerning the significance of ARTICLES 132 and 133 of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, is conducted in units prior to the administration of the oath.
6. At the designated time the regiment (brigade) is assembled in guard uniform with unit colours and band. Those taking the oath are positioned in the front ranks. In a brief presentation, the unit commander explains to the Red Army soldiers the significance of the military oath and the honour and responsibility of the obligation that rests upon those personnel who have sworn their loyalty to the People and Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and as well the significance of ARTICLES 132 and 133 of the Constitution of the USSR.
After this explanatory speech, the regiment (brigade) commander commands the regiment (brigade) Stand at ease! and gives instruction to the unit commanders to begin administering the military oath to their young soldiers.
Company (battery) commanders assemble all those taking the oath in a specified location. Each serviceman in turn reads the military oath aloud, after which he affixes his personal signature to the special list on a line opposite his last name.
Company (battery) commanders hand all lists with personal signatures of those who took the military oath to the regiment (brigade) commander.
The regiment (brigade) is reformed during the retiring of the colours. The command and the regiment (brigade) commissar congratulate the young soldiers for their taking of the military oath and congratulate the entire regiment (brigade) on accepting these full-fledged soldiers into their ranks. The regiment (brigade) passes in review.
All servicemen who for some reason did not take the military oath on this day take it individually on the following day at the regiment (brigade) headquarters under the guidance of the regiment (brigade) commander and commissar.
The lists of those who took the oath are stored at the regimental (brigade) headquarters in a special pouch that is numbered, tied with a cord, and sealed with a wax seal. The regimental (brigade) staff will mark in the identification booklet (service record) of the serviceman Took military oath [day-month-year].
7. The day on which the military oath is taken is a nonworking day for the unit and is regarded as a holiday.
8. Military-obligated personnel who are assigned to troop units and who have not taken the military oath take it not later than five days after arrival in the troop unit during training assemblies.
9. Upon the declaration of a general or partial mobilization, all military-obligated reserves who have not taken the military oath in peacetime take it upon their arrival in a troop unit.
Chairman of he Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR M.Kalinin
Secretary of he Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR A.Gorkin
3 January 1939.
[Constitution of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics]
ARTICLE 132. Universal military obligation is by law. Military service in the Workers-Peasants' Red Army is an honourable obligation of citizens of the USSR.
ARTICLE 133. The defence of the fatherland is a sacred duty of each citizen of the USSR. Violating one's military oath, crossing over to the enemy, inflicting harm to the military might of the state, and engaging in espionage are treason to the Motherland and will be punished with the full severity of the law as a most serious crime.
- D.Loza Fighting for the Soviet Motherland pp.216-218.
U.S.A.: New York: 16,000 people turn out to watch an indoor tennis match at Madison Square Garden between Donald Budge, the first man to achieve the tennis grand slam in 1938 (US, French, Australian and Wimbledon championships), making his professional debut and Ellsworth Vines. Budge wins.
Washington: A report, from the House Committee on Un-American activities reports the existence of 135 organizations that are regarded as fascist.
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