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1920   (SATURDAY) 

SWITZERLAND: The League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. The United States is not a member.

 

1933   (TUESDAY) 

EUROPE: France and the Little Entente (the loose alliance formed in 1920-21 by Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia) protests the Italian arms shipment to Austria as a breach of the 1919 Treaty of St. Germain which established the republic of Austria.

UNITED STATES: President Herbert Hoover asks ratification of the international convention for the suppression of international trade in arms and ammunition and implements of war or legislation permitting the President to limit or forbid such shipment.

 

1934   (WEDNESDAY)

GERMANY: Marinus van der Lubbe is guillotined in Leipzig. Van der Lubbe was a Dutch communist accused of setting fire to the German Reichstag building on 27 February 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire.

 

NETHERLANDS: The government announces that all government employees belonging to the Nazi Party will be fired immediately.

 

UNITED STATES: Six USN Consolidated P2Y-1 seaplanes of Patrol Squadron Ten, Base Force (VP-10F) take off from San Francisco, California, on a historic nonstop formation flight and arrive at Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, in 24 hours 35 minutes. The flight betters the best previous time for the crossing; exceeding the best distance of previous mass flights; and breaks a nine-day-old world record for distance in a straight line for Class C seaplanes with a new mark of 2,399 miles (3 861 kilometers).

     The first Boeing P-26A Peashooter monoplane fighter makes it first flight today. The P-26 was still in service on 7 December 1941 with the USAAF in the Territory of Hawaii and the Philippine Air Force.

 

1935   (THURSDAY)

UNITED STATES: New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia opens a new city airport today. LaGuardia chafes at the idea that the busiest airport in the world, Newark Municipal Airport, located across the river in New Jersey, serves commercial flights to New York City. The new airport dates back to 1929 and has been named Glenn H. Curtiss Airport and later North Beach Airport. He wants to develop the airport and wants the U.S. Government to help fund new facilities. New York Municipal Airport will be dedicated in October 1939 and will be renamed New York Municipal Airport-LaGuardia Field in November. The airport is opened for traffic on 2 December 1939.

 

1937   (SUNDAY)

GERMANY: Chancellor Adolf Hitler assures the French Ambassador to Berlin; Andr Francois-Poncet, that Germany has no designs on the territorial integrity of Spain or its possessions. These discussions were held because France had been worried over German activity in French Morocco.

POLAND: The Polish-Danzig negotiations about the League of Nations Commissioner are concluded.

UNITED KINGDOM: The British Foreign Enlistment Act of 1870 is declared applicable to the war in Spain to prevent British volunteers for getting involved. .

 

1938   (MONDAY)

CHINA: The Japanese army gains control of the strategic port of Qingdao (Tsingtao), but only after Chinese forces had destroyed the Japanese mills in the region. The Japanese army then begins a major offensive southwards, along the Hankow Railway through Shanxi (Shansi).

UNITED STATES: U.S. Representative Louis Ludlow (Democrat - Indiana) first introduced a constitutional amendment in 1935, which requires a national referendum to confirm a declaration of war passed by Congress, except in the event of an invasion of the U.S. or its territorial possessions. While Ludlow introduced the amendment several times, it failed to pass, in spite of strong support in national opinion polls. In January 1938, passage of the resolution seems assured, but President Franklin D. Roosevelt sends a letter to the Speaker of the House arguing that a president would be unable to conduct an effective foreign policy and other nations would violate American rights if the Constitution is amended. By a vote of 209-188, the House returns the resolution to committee.

January 10th, 1939 (TUESDAY)

ITALY: Rome. Chamberlain meets Mussolini, but fails to reduce tensions in Europe.

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