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1923   (TUESDAY)

FRANCE: Over the vote of the U.K., the Allied Reparation Commission decides that Germany has neglected its coal delivery. France and Belgium decide to send some engineers to the Ruhr area to speed up the German deliveries. Five divisions with heavy weapons are sent with them for protection.

SPAIN: An autogiro aircraft designed by Juan de la Cierva makes its first flight with Lieutenant Alejandro G. Spencer of the Spanish army at the controls. The revolutionary new aircraft looks like an airplane but depends on an overhead rotor instead of conventional wings for lift. Between 1935 and 1938, the U.S. Army Air Corps purchases ten autogiros for experimental work.


1931   (FRIDAY)

UNITED STATES: An agreement is announced between the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral William V. Pratt, and the Army Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur, governing the operations of their respective air forces, which climaxed a long standing inter-service controversy over the division of responsibilities for coast defense. Under the terms, the functions of the two air forces are closely associated with those of their parent services; the naval air force is defined as an element of the fleet to move with it and to carry out its primary mission; and the Army Air Corps as a land-based air arm to be employed as an essential arm of the Army in performing its general mission, including defense of the coast at home and at possessions overseas.


1932   (SATURDAY)

GERMANY: Chancellor Heinrich Bruening declares Germany could no longer pay reparations. The. report. of the Basle experts "pointed out Germany's actual incapacity to pay and the close connection between German reparation payments and the whole present situation. . . . It was clear that any attempt to uphold the system of political debt payments would bring disaster not only on Germany but on the whole world."


JAPAN: Korean nationalists attempt, unsuccessfully, to assassinate Emperor Hirohito.


UNITED KINGDOM: The British Government refuses to endorse the principle of nonrecognition of unlawful conquest enunciated by U.S. Secretary Henry Stimson or to address a similar note to Japan. The British Foreign Office issues a statement saying: "His Majesty's Government stand by the policy of the open door for international trade in Manchuria, which was guaranteed by the Nine-Power Treaty at Washington. Since the recent events in Manchuria, the Japanese representatives at the Council of the League of Nations at Geneva (Switzerland) stated on the 13th October that Japan was the champion in Manchuria of the principle of equal opportunity and the open door for the economic activities of all nations. Further, on the 28th December, the Japanese Prime Minister stated that Japan would adhere to the Open Door policy, and would welcome participation and cooperation in Manchurian enterprise. In view of these statements, his Majesty's Government have not considered it necessary to add  ress any formal note to the Japanese Government on the lines of the American Government's note, but the Japanese Ambassador in London has been requested to obtain confirmation of these assurances from his Government."


UNITED STATES: The Secretary of the Navy informs the Secretary of War of work being conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in detecting ships and aircraft by radio and suggests that since one obvious application of the method is in air warning systems for large areas, the Army might be interested in undertaking further work.


1936   (THURSDAY)

UNITED STATES: The U.S. Army adopts the US Rifle Caliber .30 M1 Garand as the standard infantry weapon.


1938   (SUNDAY)

HUNGARY: The Budapest Conference commences. The conference, which lasts until 12 January, which is attended by representatives of the Austrian, Hungarian, and Italian governments, reaffirms the protocols between the three states to maintain the status quo in the Danubian region.

January 9th, 1939 (MONDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: Destroyer HMS Kingston is launched

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